Have Your Basement Electrical Wiring Checked

Homeowner’s safety and efficiency guide to electricity and wiring

As a homeowner, you come in contact with electrical circuits on a daily basis. Turn the lights on. Grab milk from the fridge. Tune in to your favourite station to catch the news over breakfast. Without thinking of it, you’ve probably controlled a few dozen circuits before you pull out of the driveway

do you have any idea how the electrical circuits in your home actually work? Why you have to flip those pesky circuit breakers, or why the stereo salesman keeps trying to stick an expensive surge protector in the basket every time you buy an appliance? Most people don’t, besides what they forgot to remember from that summer camp merit badge. Thought you were the only one who slept through those lectures, eh?

The electricity basics

An electrician in Voorhees said that when thinking about electricity, there are three important values to know: Watts, Ohms, and Volts. You will find the maximum safe value for each listed on things like extension cords and light fixtures. I’ll explain electricity using the analogy of a water pipe. This analogy is likely to make any electrical engineers reading begin to babble about electrons till the short circuit, but it’s a great functional explanation that requires no knowledge of physics.


Volts are a measure of electrical potential. Energy is pushed from the source at a rate expressed in volts. Volts are like water pressure. Power lines in the street are high-voltage, like water from a fire hydrant. Home electricity comes in 120v for general use, which is the equivalent of a garden hose–good for most general tasks. Some special equipment, like pool pumps or laundry machines, require more power and get 240v–the electrical version of a pressure washer.

Within your home, many devices will reduce the voltage even more. A computer may only need 24v, while a cellphone charger may only use 5 volts. Their charges will step-down the power from your wall to a lower pressure that so it doesn’t fry the delicate internal electronics.

For efficient delivery, power from the main generator station to local substations flows at extreme voltages, usually around 150,000 volts. Voltage is reduced at several sub-stations until it reaches around 3,000 volts, and pole-mounted transformers finally reduce that to 120v or 240v before final delivery to your home’s junction box.

The Homeowner’s DIY Guide to Electrical Wiring

Handle residential wiring projects correctly, safely, and according to the National Electrical Code (NEC). Filled with clear photos and helpful diagrams, The Homeowner’s DIY Guide to Electrical Wiring shows you how to quickly and easily navigate the portions of the NEC that pertain to residential installations.

This hands-on resource covers basic electronics and explains how electrical service progresses through your home. It describes how to install and test electrical systems and lighting, repair appliances and TVs, and upgrade to the latest innovations such as home networking, home automation, and alternate power systems. You’ll learn the procedures used by professional electricians to create the kind of quality work that will pass inspection and add value to your home

The Homeowner’s DIY Guide to Electrical Wiring shows how to:

Protect against fire and shock hazards

Track electrical service from the point of connection to the entrance panel

Follow NEC requirements for residential projects

Work with test equipment and installation tools

Use the best techniques for quality electrical work

Design and install indoor and outdoor lighting

Maintain and repair electrically powered appliances

Fix CRT, plasma, and LCD TVs

Design a data and communications network and install coax, USB, and Ethernet cabling

Install a home automation system

Install backup and alternate power systems

Work with smart meters

Home Wiring Guide

This is an overview of a typical UK home wiring. All circuits begin from the consumer unit.

There are 3 main kinds of circuits:

Ring main

Radial circuit

Hard wired appliance circuit


Product must be installed by a competent person (e.g. a qualified electrician) in accordance with the relevant clauses of the current edition of the IEE Wiring Regulations (BS 7671: Requirements for Electrical Installations) and appropriate statutory regulations.

Switch off main power at the consumer unit.

Remove the circuit fuse to isolate the circuit you are working on and keep the fuse in a secure location to avoid accidental replacement.

Turn off the circuit breaker of the circuit you are working on and lock it if possible.

Place a note in a visible location to advise that you are working on the circuit.

Make sure the circuit is not live by checking it with a socket tester or voltage tester.

The consumer unit or commonly known as fuse box is the heart of a home wiring installation. It is usually mounted near the energy meter. A modern consumer unit as pictured above houses modular electrical devices called circuit breakers. There are 4 main kinds of circuit breakers in a common household: Main switch, MCB and RCD.

The main switch functions like a master switch that is able to isolate the incoming electrical power supply to the house. After the main switch the incoming power supply is split to several circuits such as power, light and appliance.

Each circuit is protected & controlled by a miniature circuit breaker MCB. When the circuit draws current above the MCB rated current, the MCB trips and turns off the power to protect the devices on that circuit.


There are many wire identification standards, and many of them rely on color codes. Not all electrical wiring color codes are the same, though, and some even contradict each other. Which standard should be used in your facility? It depends on your location, installation type, voltage, and other factors.

Note that older installations may use different color codes. In workplaces, it’s a good idea to document the color code that is being followed. This way, work will be safer, and future maintenance will be easier.

Electrical Wiring Color Codes

In the United States, the following color codes are typically used for power wires in “branch circuits,” the wiring between the last protective device (such as a circuit breaker) and the load (such as a tool or appliance).

120/208/240 Volt AC Wire Colors

These systems are common in home and office environments.

Phase 1 – Black

Phase 2 – Red

Phase 3 – Blue

Neutral – White

Ground – Green, Green with Yellow Stripe, or Bare Wire

If the wiring system has one phase at a higher voltage than the others, using a “high-leg” connection, that phase’s wires should be marked with orange. (This is required in NEC article 110.15.) However, these high-leg delta systems are uncommon with newer installations.

277/480 Volt AC Wire Colors

These higher-voltage systems are common for industrial motors and equipment.

Phase 1 – Brown

Phase 2 – Orange

Phase 3 – Yellow

Neutral – Gray

Ground – Green, Green with Yellow Stripe, or Bare Wire

A practical, money-saving guide to home electrical wiring

Handle residential wiring projects correctly, safely, and according to the National Electrical Code (NEC). Filled with clear photos and helpful diagrams, The Homeowner’s DIY Guide to Electrical Wiring shows you how to quickly and easily navigate the portions of the NEC that pertain to residential installations.

This hands-on resource covers basic electronics and explains how electrical service progresses through your home. It describes how to install and test electrical systems and lighting, repair appliances and TVs, and upgrade to the latest innovations such as home networking, home automation, and alternate power systems. You’ll learn the procedures used by professional electricians to create the kind of quality work that will pass inspection and add value to your home.

The Homeowner’s DIY Guide to Electrical Wiring shows how to:

> Protect against fire and shock hazards

> Track electrical service from the point of connection to the entrance panel

> Follow NEC requirements for residential projects

> Work with test equipment and installation tools

> Use the best techniques for quality electrical work

> Design and install indoor and outdoor lighting

> Maintain and repair electrically powered appliances

> Fix CRT, plasma, and LCD TVs

> Design a data and communications network and install coax, USB, and Ethernet cabling

> Install a home automation system

> Install backup and alternate power systems

> Work with smart meters

What Is A Home Inspection

Rental Housing & Inspections

Rental Fee Updates

Well-managed rental properties in compliance with city codes will see no increase in fees for 2020.  The annual rental registration fee, inspection fees and all other rental fees will remain the same. Notable updates are highlighted below.

The City has seen a significant rise in rental property owners rescheduling or canceling their appointments at the last minute. Because of the notification requirements landlords must provide to tenants, these appointment slots are often not able to be backfilled with property owners on the waiting list. In addition, the rescheduled appointment takes a future slot away from other property owners in need of an appointment. In order to better utilize the cancelled slots and more effectively use inspector’s time

Short-term Rentals

Ordinance designates short-term rentals as a commercial enterprise, only permitted in certain zoning districts. These would include rentals let by the night or week.   Residential rental property typically has rental terms of 30 days or more.  The city regularly reviews online websites such as VRBO, Airbnb, Homestay and other websites for short term rentals operating in the city.

Service Request Form – Submit this form to file a complaint with a rental property. Whenever possible, tenants should provide written complaints to landlords before filing a complaint with the City.

Guide to Inspecting Plumbing

As a home inspector, it is important to pay attention to all the details of the major home systems. Plumbing is no exception. Knowing how plumbing systems work and understanding the different types, components, and proper verbiage will allow you to identify any minor or major issues.

for this informative webinar which will discuss the important items to consider when inspecting plumbing, what to look for and where to look, as well as important standard operating procedures and industry standards to help you perform a thorough plumbing inspection of a home.

Try locating a carpenter that specializes in, or has experience with old homes. “Checking” refers to fractures that run in the instructions of the grain and type when the wood is drying out. A seasoned carpenter comprehends the homes of old wood and can evaluate these conditions relatively.

biggest issue for old homeowners is specialists that talk them into unneeded repair works. An independent assessment is encouraged by an inspector that does not do repair/contracting if you have contractors that you believe are overreacting. Give the inspector a crayon to mark exact locations requiring repair services.

Wood structures naturally sag over time which includes gradual flexing and stretching of the fibers. Commonly it is just required to reinforce beams and joists, or reduce their period with posts or columns and accept the sloped floors as 150-year-old house character.

Selling a rental property

Selling a property can be a stressful event at any time. When the property is rented, everyone should understand their rights and responsibilities.

Landlords sell their properties for many reasons. But remember that the tenant has a tenancy agreement that gives them the right to live in the house. You can make it less stressful by making sure everyone knows what’s happening throughout the sale process.

Landlords must let tenants know they’re selling

If a landlord puts the property on the market, they must tell the tenant in writing. They may also choose to let the tenant know in advance. A tenant may not react well to a real estate agent arriving unexpectedly on their doorstep.

Access to the property

Landlords must get the tenant’s permission before entering the house to take photos. The tenant can refuse to allow any photographs of their personal possessions. Landlord’s must also get the tenant’s permission to show possible buyer’s through the house. You may also want to show through a registered valuer or building expert.

Tenants may not agree to open homes or auctions at the property. Instead, they can insist that the property be shown by appointment only. They can also ask for a temporary rent reduction in return for allowing open homes. The landlord does not have to grant this.

How to Negotiate More Effectively in the Current Home Market

This year has surprisingly seen a strong housing market. Homeowners make monthly payments to the bank, and therefore you’d think the pandemic recession and job losses would lead to more property sellers

However, that hasn’t been the case. Low mortgage rates, low inventory supply and robust housing prices have led to a glut of buyers looking to acquire residential properties. Such an investment, whether personal or business, provides multiple benefits of long-term capital gains, tax advantages and monthly cash flow from renters.

Negotiate assertively

So what does a seller’s market mean for people looking to put a household on the market? It means they’re facing a robust real-estate sector and by liquidating now, homeowners can lock in an attractive price from multiple bidders.

Negotiating well requires doing homework. It’s important to stay cooperative (instead of being antagonistic) and avoid taking discussions too personal. However, you likely possess leverage to push harder on price and critical terms that matter most to your family.

Work with an expert realtor

As realtors know, local conditions dictate housing inventory levels, availability, price, negotiating leverage and whether you can obtain favorable terms. In a seller’s market, demand exceeds supply and that gives sellers a negotiating edge.

Tips for Buying a Home Near the Water

While homes on the water have long been popular, the pandemic appears to have increased demand. “Since Covid, home buyers are seeking waterfront residences outside of cities in more remote places,” she said. “They want space and freedom to be out without being around too many people.”

buyers interested in waterfront homes had the advantage for more than six years because of more supply than demand. Today, however, with sales of his properties up, sellers have the upper hand. So properties may be priced higher than they should be.

“While prices are bound to increase with growing demand, a 5- to 10-percent rise each year is a sign of a healthy appreciating market,” he said. “Anything more is too much.”

What Is the Beach or Lake Access?

a real estate consultant who has overseen the development of several waterfront resort communities, said buyers should know that many beaches are public, even if they’re within resort communities. If privacy is a concern, consider how easy it is for nonresidents to access the beach. Public parking, footpaths from the street to the beach and busy roads around the area are signs that the beach is convenient to visit.

Consider Health and Cleanliness Standards and Privacy

Health and security are important when buying a waterfront home. If you’re looking at residences in a resort community with a hotel, you have access to amenities, including restaurants and a pool, but community living comes with more people and common spaces.

Starting A Tax Preparation Business

What Does a Tax Preparer Do?

What Is a Tax Preparer?

A tax preparer is an individual who prepares, calculates, and files income tax returns on behalf of individuals and businesses. There are several different types of tax preparers, with some having credentials issued by third-party organizations while others are non-credentialed preparers. Knowing the different types of tax preparers and credentials can help you get your best tax outcome.

Credentialed vs non-credentialed tax preparers

Credentialed tax preparers.  Many tax preparers are credentialed professionals who work year-round, primarily on accounting and tax related tasks.

Credentialed tax preparers include:

  • Certified Public Accounts (CPAs),
  • Enrolled Agents (EAs), and
  • Tax Attorneys.

All three types of tax preparers receive credentials from the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) or a state board.

  • CPAs receive credentials from state boards.
  • EAs receive credentials from the IRS.
  • Tax Attorneys are licensed by state bar associations.

Non-credentialed tax preparers.  Individuals who prepare taxes without a credential from a third-party organization are non-credentialed preparers. Instead of meeting the requirements of a third-party issuing organization, non-credentialed tax professionals may be self-taught or have received training provided by a tax preparation store where they work on a seasonal basis.

Non-credentialed tax preparers include:

  • Seasonal tax store employees,
  • Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA) program volunteers,
  • Tax accountants not Certified by the American Institute of CPAs (AICPA), and
  • Annual Filing Season Program participants.

Tax preparers working or volunteering with these businesses and organizations can carry credentials and prepare tax returns, but they are not required to in most cases. Unlike CPAs, EAs, and tax attorneys, many non-credentialed tax preparers only provide tax preparation assistance for a few months of the year during tax season.

What skills do you need to be a tax preparer?

A tax preparer usually holds a degree in Finance or Accounting. They have good knowledge of tax preparation software and MS Office. To become a competent tax preparer, it’s important to have attention to detail, and great mathematical and communicatiTypes of credentialed tax preparers

Certified Public Accountant (CPA).  As the name suggests, a CPA has been certified by a state or governmental territory as having attained the required skill level in areas of accounting and tax preparation, including,

  • Maintaining financial records,
  • Certifying financial statements, and
  • Conducting audits.

To become a CPA, an individual must pass the Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination, a comprehensive test given by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and be licensed by the state in which they work.

  • More than forty states require CPAs to pass an ethics exam prior to licensing.
  • All states require CPAs to take continuing education courses to remain up-to-date on change on accounting and tax laws.

CPAs are authorized to represent their clients on all matters before the IRS, including,

  • Tax audits,
  • Payment and collection issues, and
  • Appeals.

Enrolled Agent (EA). 

An EA is an individual licensed by the IRS to represent clients in any matter before the IRS. To become an EA, an individual must,

  • Pass the IRS’ Special Enrollment Examination, or
  • If they are a former IRS employee, have certain work experience.

Once certified by the IRS, EAs are required to stay up-to-date on changes in the tax law by completing at least:

  • 16 hours of continuing education each year
  • 72 hours of continuing education every three-year period

Tax attorney.  A tax attorney is an attorney who specializes in tax law. A tax attorney usually must,

  • Earn a college degree and then a law degree.
  • Pass a state bar exam.
  • Obtain a state license, which often involves meeting certain standards of character.
  • Continue their education throughout their careers.on skills.

What does a tax preparer do?

Here are the duties and responsibilities that a Tax Preparer is likely to perform in their role.

  • Manage quality communication, customer support and product representation for each client.
  • Confer and assist CPA departmentally.
  • Complete education requirements for CPA license.
  • Recognize by IRS for outstanding public service and community contribution.
  • Utilize QuickBooks to update client information and generate year-end statements.
  • Prepare bank reconciliations and general ledger maintenance for multiple clients using QuickBooks software.
  • Assist low-income individuals and families in courteous, accurate income tax preparation to ensure maximum deductions and understanding of complex regulations.
  • Establish first disaster recovery plan.
  • Provide accurate financial service, ability to multitask and work in a fast pace environment, exceptional customer service skills.
  • Develop ability to work in a fast-pace atmosphere maintain excellent customer relations and develop customer rapport.

Responsibilities of a Tax Preparer

Tax preparers have an important job that requires earning the trust of the client. It is the responsibility of a taxpayer to prepare and submit an accurate income tax return to the Internal Revenue Service. If the preparer makes a mistake, the taxpayer can incur late fees and penalties. Tax preparers must keep up to date on the continually changing tax codes, and have knowledge of both federal and state tax laws.

Interviewing Clients

Before the preparer can begin preparing a return, the preparer must ask the appropriate questions to determine which tax form is required to prepare the client’s return. The tax preparer must discover the client’s annual income, exemptions, deductions and expenses. It is also essential that the preparer determine whether the client owns a business. If the client hired the tax preparer to prepare last year’s taxes, the preparer might also examine the prior year’s tax forms and question any changes.

Gathering Financial Information

To complete an income tax return, the tax preparer must collect and discuss the client’s current year financial information. This information will typically include income statements, such as Form W-2; expense documents, such as receipts; the names and Social Security numbers of all dependents; and any other forms that the client received. These forms will determine whether any supporting documents are required to complete the return.

Completing the Forms

Many tax preparers use income tax software to prepare income tax returns. These computer programs present the preparer with a checklist, which helps the program to determine which forms are required to complete the return. For those preparers who do not use tax software, the IRS offers fillable forms, which perform the calculations automatically. While preparing the forms, the tax preparer will search for tax-saving deductions or credits and try to reduce or eliminate the client’s tax. If the client has an unusual tax situation, the preparer will refer to the IRS website or Publication 17 for assistance. Once the forms are completed, the tax preparer will advise the client of the tax due or amount of the refund.

Filing the Forms

Most tax preparers will file a client’s income tax returns electronically. If the preparer does not use software to prepare the tax returns, the IRS offers a free service to file them. Filing electronically offers several benefits to clients, which include the elimination of inaccuracies on a return, faster processing times and prompt refunds. Clients who choose to file electronically must present the preparer with last year’s adjusted gross income and PIN number. If the client does not have this information, the preparer can assist the client with contacting the IRS to obtain this information. For clients who would rather file the return through the mail, the preparer must assemble the return, request the client to sign the return, and prepare the envelope.

Tips On How To Find The Best Pediatric Facility In Your Area

Pediatric Nurse

Nurses who specialize in pediatrics devote their knowledge and skills to caring for children from infancy through the late teen years and their families. These specialized nurses usually complete advanced training in pediatrics and collaborate closely with physicians and other health care providers who share their dedication to children’s health.

Like other nurses, pediatric nurses can perform physical examinations, measure vital statistics, take blood and urine samples and order diagnostic tests. Nurses with advanced training can interpret test results to form diagnoses and develop treatment plans.

Parents often prefer to have their children treated by pediatric specialists, because children have special health care needs. Their bodies are growing and changing, and they often react differently to injury, illness and even common medications.

In addition, children get scared and can’t always clearly communicate “what hurts.” Pediatric nurses know how to talk to children and how to dispel their fears. They also know how to ask children questions about their health, so they can gather complete and accurate information to aid in diagnosis and treatment.

In addition to caring for patients with injuries and illnesses, pediatric nurses spend a significant amount of time educating parents and other caregivers about how to care for their children and protect children’s health. For families of children with chronic conditions, such as juvenile diabetes or paralysis, they design home care plans to help the families meet their child’s special needs.

Prevention and health education is a big part of pediatric nursing. Pediatric nurses often staff community health fairs and visit schools to perform physical exams, immunize children and provide routine developmental health screenings.

Pediatric nursing is a very special vocation, because it provides the opportunity to play a key role in a child’s life when that child needs you most.

Education and Experience Needed To Be a Pediatric Nurse

It takes a lot of dedication and passion to become a pediatric nurse and there are many steps an individual must take in order to provide this specialized care:

Step 1: Earn a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree; the completion of this 4-year program qualifies and individual as a Registered Nurse (RN).

Step 2: Find an internship that allows RNs to work alongside a Pediatric Nurse Practitioner or a doctor. This internship will be approximately 12 weeks long and involves both practical training and classroom learning.

Step 3: Apply for Pediatric Nursing positions. Positions for pediatric nurses are growing in demand, so it’s likely an individual will be able to find a position in a short amount of time.

Step 4: Apply for a Certified Pediatric Nurse (CPN) certification administered by the Pediatric Nursing Certification Board (PNCB). Once an individual has over 1,800 hours of career experience as a pediatric nurse over a 24 month period, they can apply for this certification. Although the CPN certification is completely voluntary, it greatly increases a nurse’s employability, enhances career mobility, and may raise compensation.

Types of Pediatric Nurses and The Kind of Work They Do

Direct Nursing Care (Pediatric Registered Nurse)

A Pediatric Registered Nurse typically works with children in doctors’ offices and hospitals. They provide routine checkups for children of all ages. The primary role of a Pediatric Registered Nurse is to administer any care that is required according to the patient’s nursing care plan. The main duties of a Pediatric Registered Nurse include:

  • Observing vital signs
  • Being present to communicate with the parents when needed
  • Working with parents and families to cope with the stress of a child’s illness
  • Providing routine checkups for children
  • Giving developmental screenings and immunizations
  • Treating illnesses like chicken pox

Neonatal Nursing

Neonatal Nurses provide care and support for newborn infants who are born prematurely, or suffering from health problems such as birth defects, infections, or heart deformities. In most cases, a Neonatal Nurse will work in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The main duties of a Neonatal Nurse include:

  • Monitoring vital signs of babies in the NICU
  • Working with premature babies and families that have difficulties adjusting to living outside of their mother’s womb
  • Educating parents about their child’s progress
  • Ensuring that all equipment necessary for the baby is working properly

Developmental Disability Nurse

Developmental Disability Nurses provide specialized care for children with a wide range of mental and developmental disabilities that affect a child’s ability to learn and perform basic life skills. These nurses work with children that have developmental disabilities such as Down syndrome, autism, Rett syndrome, and Asperger’s syndrome. The main duties of a Developmental Disability Nurse include:

Assisting with feeding and bodily functions

Educating and supporting parents about their child’s developmental disability

Developing a child’s language and communication skills

Educating children and their parents about required medical equipment

Helping achieve independent mobility

Palliative Pediatric Nursing

Palliative Pediatric Nurses care for terminally-ill children to relieve their suffering and ensure the best quality of care during living, dying, and family grieving. Palliative Pediatric Nurses are highly trained in discussions of death so that they can effectively and compassionately communicate a child’s condition to his or her family. The main duties of a Palliative Pediatric Nurse include:

  • Ensuring clear communication to parents about the child’s condition
  • Coordinating care with other heath care professionals
  • Being present in the clinic or at the bedside of the ill child, to identify any care needed
  • Providing information for the family to make informed decisions
  • Assisting with necessary medical equipment

Where do pediatric nurses work?

As you might imagine, wherever there are babies, kids and teenagers there’ll always be a market for pediatric nurses who have been specially trained to tend to childhood injuries and illness Once you identify pediatric nursing as your calling in life and earn the necessary credentials to become one, you’ll be able to grow your career in a city, suburban or rural environment and a wide range of facilities. For example, an Institute for Pediatric Nursing survey of Certified Pediatric Nurses revealed that:

  • 30.3% of them are employed at free-standing children’s hospitals.
  • 28.3% work at children’s hospitals associated with a major medical center.
  • 11.7% are employed at outpatient care facilities.
  • 9.9% are employed at community hospitals.
  • 4.8% work at amajor medical center.
  • 2.4% work in school setting.

With the right education and training in pediatric nursing, you’ll have a wide range of environments where your knowledge and skills are in demand.

What will your workdays be like as a pediatric nurse?

Your workday as a pediatric nurse will largely depend on the type of facility where you get hired. If you’re employed at a doctor’s office, hospital or clinic, your duties and responsibilities may be similar to those of any registered nurse, except the care you provide will be administered to younger patients. The job description can include:

  • Work with pediatricians, nurses and other healthcare professionals to develop care plans for babies, toddlers, kids and teens.
  • Calm and reassure worried parents and teach them how to best care for their children.
  • Connect and effectively communicate with your youthful patients to help take the fear factor off their illnesses, injuries and treatments.

You may also choose to take a job as a school nurse, in which case your day to day activities will likely include promoting preventive healthcare for students, faculty and members of the community.

Deep Cleaning Tasks Handled By A Premium Carpet Cleaning Company

Soft Services: Deep cleaning guidance for re-occupation

As we turn our attention to recommissioning our estate, one of the early and key considerations will be on how do we make it clean and ready to re-inhabit. There will be an element of nervousness from your colleagues and visitors as they come to site, so one of the key priorities will be to provide reassurance, both upon re-opening and then on an on-going basis.

There are three key considerations:

What do we need to do in preparation for re-occupation?

What are the ongoing considerations and actions to ensure the workplace remains clean and safe?

What happens if there is a confirmed or suspected outbreak within the workplace?

Background to the virus

First, is it important to know a little about the virus and how it spreads. Our primary objective is to help you get back up and running in the safest way possible by recommending some of the practical things you can implement to have a direct impact on the potential infection transmission rate in your building.

The virus, believed to be from the same strain as the SARS virus, has presented itself as a respiratory illness with varying levels of severity from minor symptoms to death. As with any virus, the transmission can be rapid, with person to person contact enabling it to be spread at pace. Any form of infection is created by exposure to harmful micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses and internal parasites.

Coronavirus is an airborne virus, spread in a similar way to colds and the flu. It is incredibly contagious and is spread through contact with anything the virus is on as well as infected breath, coughs or sneezes. This means that anyone who is infected can pass it on to any surface or person they breathe on or touch.

We can help and contribute to the prevention and reduce the risk by applying good standard precautionary practices such as the following:

Achieving good hand hygiene

Correct use of personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, aprons, masks etc.

Managing sharps

Disposing of waste appropriately

Accident management

Managing spillages of blood and body fluids

Achieving and maintaining a clean environment

Deep Clean Guide

all know those cleaning tasks we want to avoid until it’s absolutely needed – when the oven makes smoke signals, or the inside of the microwave looks like a science project While it may be greasy, the payoff is worth it. So, stop putting those deep cleaning tasks off!

What Do I Need to Deep Clean My Home?

Disposable rags, scrub pads or towels that you don’t mind tossing

Two buckets: One for the dirty/greasy water and another for clean water

Your preferred degreaser, dish soap and some disinfectant spray

Pair of rubber gloves

Abrasive scrub pad

Spray bottle with 1:1 vinegar and water

Scrub brush or an old toothbrush

Deep Cleaning the Entire Home

Dust and vacuum: Hard-to-reach ledges, windows, light fixtures and above cabinets. Essentially, all the places that are too hard to reach during your normal cleaning routine. Bring out the stepladder! Just be cautious.

Faucets: De-Scale faucets as well as shower heads throughout the home with vinegar. Clean out aerators.

Vent Covers: Remove HVAC vent covers and wash them in the sink with soapy water.

Windows: Vacuum windowsills and also window tracks. Remove cobwebs and bugs from the window screens

Ceiling Fans: Wipe down ceiling fan blades

Doors: Wipe down doors and doorframes for fingerprints as well as smudges.

Garbage Cans: Wipe out and sanitize garbage cans, recycling bins, etc.

Blinds: Give your blinds a deep clean by spraying them with vinegar and scrubbing down.

Couch & Chairs: Remove all cushions and vacuum the creases where pet hair and popcorn love to call home. Also, move the couch to clean underneath and/or behind.

Cabinets/Drawers: Empty cabinets and drawers, give them a vacuum and wipe with a clean moist rag or your preferred cleaning spray. Wipe down all cabinet fronts as well.

How to Deep Clean the Kitchen

Oven: Before you crank up the heat on your “self-cleaning” oven, let’s get out all the stuff that can be a fire hazard.

Stovetop: Remove the pot grates from the stovetop and soak in hot soapy water. If you have an electric oven, you can remove/unplug the coils to make cleaning easier. Some oven/cooktops have a slide-out tray beneath the burners to catch any food – don’t forget this part! Scrub down all surfaces and knobs with a soapy sponge and then a clean wet rag.

Microwave: Before you grease that elbow, loosen food with vinegar and lemon. Use glass cleaner for the microwave face and keypad.

Toaster: Remove the fire hazard (aka breadcrumbs) from the bottom of the toaster.

Sink: This seems like a no-brainer, but after all that cleaning, your kitchen sink is going to be filthy. Wipe it out with hot soapy water, paying attention to the crevices in the backsplash, and around the faucet. A disinfectant spray with bleach can help with stubborn stains.

Refrigerator/Freezer: Don’t forget the rubber gasket around the door seals; clean these with hot soapy water and then disinfect. Use this time to throw away expired items.

Dishwasher: Use baking soda as well as vinegar to clean your dishwasher to remove soap residues and build up that happens over time. Run it empty with a cup of vinegar and half a cup of baking soda.

Deep Cleaning the Bathroom

Grout: White grout can really brighten the appearance of a bathroom. There are many special grout cleaners to make this deep cleaning job easier. Or use this simple DIY grout cleaning technique.

Shower Curtain: Wash your linen shower curtain if it’s washing machine safe. For the plastic curtain behind the linen one, you can either clean it or replace it. They’re cheap and usually cleaning can be difficult.

Toothbrush Holder: This thing gets pretty nasty. Luckily, we have this easy toothbrush holder cleaning tip!

Toilet: Clean toilet, pay attention to the base and behind it as well.

COVID-19: Best Practices On Deep Cleaning And Disinfecting During A Facility Closure

As many facilities across the country are shutting down to contain the potential spread of COVID-19 or as a result of community spread outbreak, some may be thinking about or have started the deep cleaning process. Here are some tips and best practices on deep cleaning and disinfecting a facility during a closure.

Make sure the disinfectant you’re using is approved for use against SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Confirm whether your disinfectant is approved for use by contacting the manufacturer and searching the product’s EPA registration

Disinfect all touch points, not just the frequently touched surfaces. To make the process easier, consider using equipment such as electrostatic sprayers, foggers and misters to make sure hard to reach surfaces are not missed.

Make sure the custodial staff are properly trained and wear appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).

Remove any visible soil with a detergent-based cleaner before applying a disinfectant and follow instructions on the product label for effective disinfecting. Some disinfectants are also cleaners and therefore, can be used for both steps.

Ensure surfaces remain visibly wet for the contact time specified on the product label.

To minimize cross contamination, here are additional considerations when disinfecting surfaces.

Disinfect surfaces from clean areas to dirty areas. For example, restrooms being one of the highly contaminated areas should be cleaned last.

Disinfect surfaces from high areas to low areas so that any dirt or dust that may contain germs dislodged from above are removed when you clean the lower surfaces.

Disinfect last after other activities (including emptying trash, removing visible soil and vacuuming) are complete, so that any potentially contaminated dirt and dust don’t re-contaminate already disinfected surfaces.

Lastly, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has specific recommendations for when a COVID-19 case has been confirmed in your facility. These recommendations include:

Close off areas used by confirmed or suspected COVID-19 persons and wait for 24 hours, if possible, before beginning cleaning and disinfecting to minimize potential for exposure to respiratory droplets.

Open outside doors and windows to increase air circulation in the area.

How to disinfect your house

From kitchens to bathrooms and every door handle and countertop in between, read our simple go-to guide for how to disinfect your house from top to bottom!

If you’ve found yourself asking questions such as, “What is disinfectant spray?” or wondering how to sanitise your house, you’ve come to the right place! In this article, we’ll show you how to disinfect your home, starting with the two most high-risk areas (the kitchen and bathroom) before moving on to other general tips for how to use disinfectant to have a germ-free home from door handle to countertop.

How to disinfect the kitchen: A comprehensive guide

With the following steps, we’ll show you how to target the most high-risk areas of your kitchen for cleaning and disinfecting.

How to disinfect kitchen countertops

Your kitchen countertops should be cleaned daily. Always clean down any surfaces you have used for food preparation immediately, especially if you have been handling raw meat.

Step 1:

Spray the countertop with a disinfectant.

Step 2:

Use a clean, soft cloth to wipe the surface where you have sprayed.

Step 3:

Leave to air dry.

How to disinfect chopping boards

Clean them regularly.

Chopping boards should be cleaned after every use.

For the best results, use a cleaning solution.

We recommend a vinegar or chlorine-based cleaning solution.

Use a paper towel to remove excess moisture.

And allow to air-dry.

Coronavirus: Deep Cleaning Tips for Holiday Rentals

It’s key to regain the trust of visitors and to reassure them that you’re providing a correctly cleaned holiday rental for their stay. From disinfecting to using the right products and step-by-step cleaning guidelines, here are some coronavirus cleaning tips to help protect your cleaners and guests during COVID-19 and beyond.

Which products for where?

Don’t just sanitise – clean first then sanitise. It’s better to first clean the area with warm soapy water and then apply disinfectant (let it stand for a few minutes before wiping) to kill viruses, bacteria and germs.

Open windows to allow fresh air to circulate the property during the entire cleaning process and ask guests to air the property during their stay.

Use disposable cloths or paper towels when possible or machine-wash reusable cloths at the highest heat setting appropriate after each clean.

Disinfect kitchen brushes and sponges with detergent and warm water. You could also put sponges or cloths in the microwave on high for a minute or two.

Soft furnishings and carpets – consider using a disinfectant spray or steam cleaner/carpet cleaner. Test on a hidden area first.

Some accommodation providers are using fogging machines which disperse disinfectant in a fine mist to cover surfaces after cleaning.

To prevent contamination of upholstery, cover the furniture with washable sheets. Ideally, remove decorative scatter cushions or cover with washable covers.

Bedding & linen – ask guests to strip beds and place dirty linen into bags on departure.

Do not shake dirty laundry as this minimises the possibility of dispersing viruses into the air.

Remove from the property before cleaning commences and use fresh clean gloves to put out clean towels and linen onto the beds.

Machine wash at 60°C all linen, mattress/pillow protectors, towels, bath mats and tea towels (even unused ones as guests may have touched them).

Pillows, duvets, throws, cushions etc. should be sprayed with disinfectant or rotate a clean set between guests.

Run the washing machine on empty once a week, either at a high temperature or with a chemical disinfectant to prevent the growth of germs.

Ask guests to put their waste in a tied plastic bag and dispose it in an external bin.

Double check all surfaces for dust. If you or your guests see dust, then it’s questionable whether the property has been thoroughly cleaned.

All surfaces that guests have come into contact with must be cleaned and disinfected, including:


Door handles

Door frames




Light/lamp switches

Remote controls


Window sills and handles



Key lock box


Stair railings

Ironing boards and irons

Bins (indoor and outdoor)

Plugs and cables


Dog basket


Blind cords/pulleys

Indoor/outdoor furniture & chairs


How To Get Rid Of Raccoon

Raccoons in the Attic – Guide to Safe Removal

The below guide is written by a naturalist and wildlife removal specialist with many years of experience and hundreds of cases of safe and humane removal of wild animals from homes and buildings. This guide provides the information needed to understand and solve a problem with raccoons living inside the attic of a home.

So! You have a raccoon (or multiple raccoons) in the attic of your home. Most people become aware that an animal is living in their attic when they hear scampering, scratching, or walking noises above the ceiling. A wide variety of animals choose to live in the attics of buildings, from rats and mice, bats and pigeons, squirrels, opossums, and of course raccoons. Most of these animals will oftentimes use other areas of the home as well, from the soffits to the wall voids to the space between floors, so the attic is not the only area you’ll find critters.

How To Get Rid of Raccoons in the Attic: The main principle is that you’ve got to first find out if there’s a litter of baby raccoons (almost always yes), then remove the babies and trap the adult female, and then find out how they raccoon(s) got inside the attic, and after they are all out, seal the entry holes shut. Cleaning up raccoon waste afterward is also a good idea. Below I discuss the details of the process, and it is rarely easy.

Raccoon Noises: It’s often possible to determine the type of animal by the noises alone. Raccoons are the largest of these animals, so the sound is often “heavy” – more like thumping or walking than the light scurrying of a rat. Additionally, raccoons are primarily nocturnal, so the noises occur at night. Most of the noise might happen shortly after dusk, when the animal leaves the attic, and again sometime in the night when it returns. However, the timing of the noise may vary, and sometimes raccoons will stir during the daytime. In addition, raccoons are often vocal, and it’s possible to hear their various growls, chirps, cries, and other noises. If there’s a raccoon family, consisting of a female and a litter of baby raccoons, you will very often hear the very distinct and unique crying and whining of the babies, surefire evidence of raccoon presence.

Raccoon Sightings: Many people with a raccoon in the attic see the animal. It’s a large critter, and it doesn’t exactly hide its presence with swift and silent movements, like a rat. Raccoons are also often active in the daytime, especially ones living in an attic (see below), so it’s very common for people with a raccoon in the attic to actually see the animal, as it climbs up the downspout and onto the roof, or sniffs through the garbage can.



Raccoons (Procyon lotor) have masks over their eyes because they could rob even a bank vault. These resourceful animals are second in persistence and imagination to no other animal (unless it’s a squirrel at a bird feeder).

Raccoons are great climbers, swimmers, jumpers, and runners. Their five-toed paws make them very dexterous, and their agility can allow them to outsmart every human concoction used to deter them. If they aren’t breaking into your garden, they might try to climb into your chimney to use it as a den.


Raccoons are nocturnal and omnivorous, meaning they eat anything from grubs to crayfish, as well as all the plants and vegetables that you have in your garden, too. Especially in the fall, they develop a taste for fruits like apples, peaches, and pears, but they also enjoy a variety of vegetables, like sweet corn, potatoes, and peas.


Raccoons are small mammals 2 to 3 feet in length and weighing about 10 to 30 pounds. Raccoons have distinct black “masks” on their faces, which often characterizes them as bandits. They have fluffy, ringed tails and their bodies are varying shades of gray, with hints of light brown. The forepaws of raccoons resemble tiny human hands with five toes, which makes raccoons very dexterous.


If your lawn has a lot of holes in it, or your mulch pile has a lot of holes, you probably have a nightly visitor. Raccoons will dig up lawns and mulch piles looking for insects to eat. They will also empty bird feeders, so keep an eye on your feeders to see if you have a raccoon problem. Additionally, raccoons are known to raid chicken coops, stealing eggs and even killing chickens.

Crucial steps to get raccoons out of your attic

How do we get raccoons out of the attic?

So, you’ve got guests. They are uninvited, unwelcome, and totally unpleasant. They are raccoons… and, unfortunately, they will not leave by themselves. You’ve got a problem. You need raccoon control.

Your evenings are disrupted by heavy thumping on the ceiling while growling and scratching noises wakes you up at night. The trash can is often tipped over, and your garden is spoiled by raids of your unwelcome guests. These are common annoyances when raccoons are around your property. But they have more surprises in store for you.

Having large critters roaming your house is no doubt a creepy feeling, but what goes on behind the scenes is even more disturbing. Your attic, pipes, ductwork, and insulation are relentlessly destroyed every passing day.

Once you get raccoons in your house, you have just one priority: You need to get those raccoons out of your attic immediately! There is no time to waste unless you want to see big money flying out of your pocket.

The good news is that you can get raccoons out of your attic, prevent them from coming back and find your peace of mind again. The bad news, on the other hand, is that this is not an easy job. It requires time and expertise and is hardly ever a DIY task. Most likely, you will need professional help to take care of the matter, restore and repair your house and prevent them from coming back again.

How To Get Raccoons Out of Your Attic

The first sign of raccoons in the attic is the noise – you probably hear thumping or walking at night. You might also hear vocal noises from the adult or from a nest of baby raccoons. Here’s the deal with raccoons in the attic: there’s almost always a female who has a nest of 3-5 baby raccoons. That’s why she went into the attic in the first place. Raccoons don’t have much use for your attic otherwise

The most common time of year for this is spring, with the peak time from March-May, but I’ve seen baby raccoons at many different times of the year. A raccoon is a large animal, and a strong and messy animal. They need a large entry hole (or holes) to get into your home, and they can rip right through shingles and wood roof. Once in an attic, they can tear up ducts and wires, trample insulation, and leave piles of large droppings behind

They will stay in the attic for maybe 8 months, until the young are big and strong enough to make it on their own, at which time the female will likely mate again and want to use your attic once more. You want to remove raccoons from your attic, but it’s not very easy. You have to get the nest of baby raccoons.

If you don’t, they will scratch and claw and maybe make their way through your ceiling, or they will scream for up to two weeks and then die of starvation and decompose and cause a big odor problem. It’s very inhumane to not get the baby raccoons. Be sure you handle this delicate situation correctly! If you want to hire someone to do this.

Is there a nest of baby raccoons? Yes. Pretty much every time raccoons are in the attic, it’s a single female who has a litter of young. This most commonly happens in the springtime, and the number of young is usually 3-5, and they will stay in the attic for most of the year, until the young are big enough to fend for themselves, at which time they will move out and leave the territory. If you remove just the female raccoon and not the litter of young, you will have a problem

Raccoon Control: How to Get Rid of Raccoons

While the common pests that homeowners usually deal with during the times of the year where it’s starting to get cooler are rats and mice, another common nuisance that should not be overlooked during fall or winter time is wildlife like the Raccoon.

More commonly found in woodsy regions in the Eastern United States, a Raccoon problem can creep up anywhere in the country and if you happen to have one decide to hang around your neighborhood, you may be in for a lot of destruction.

There is a reason Raccoons are considered wildlife, because they can get pretty wild around the home and can give homeowners fits by knocking over trash cans, eating bird feed and scratching and clawing all over the place in search of food. They have been known to damage gardens and tear off shingles and boards in their attempt to get into crawl spaces in homes, finding their way into attics, basements, and garages.

Before considering a treatment approach, you need to make sure that the wild animal lurking on your property is a Raccoon. This will ensure that you are using the correct bait and strategies.

Raccoons are generally 12 inches tall and 24 to 38 inches long.

Raccoons are distinctive; they have gray fur, a ring-striped tail and black markings on their faces which resemble a mask.

They normally weigh between 15 and 25 pounds and are intelligent animals.

They have large droppings similar to dogs.

Raccoons are nocturnal and at times can be particularly aggressive wild animals. Take caution when approaching or handling this animal.

Raccoons are excellent climbers and are able to swim.

Where to Inspect

Raccoons are most likely in your attic looking for food, shelter, or both. If you have any clutter or storage bins in your attic, they are most likely burrowing in these particular spots. Raccoons may also be in basements or garages where trash is stored, as well as areas with clutter or pet food will most likely be spots where raccoons are most active. Search the corners and crevices as well.

Practical Reasons To Put Custom Wheels On Your Truck Tires

Passenger vs. Light Truck Tires

If you drive an SUV or a pickup truck, it’s important to know that you have options when selecting replacement tires.

Understanding the differences between Passenger and Light Truck tires will be critical if you are considering a switch from the original tire type for your vehicle. It’s not necessarily a simple matter of choosing between good and bad. How you use your vehicle will help determine the best choice for you, because each type is constructed for different driving needs.

If you are interested in replacing your Passenger with Light Truck tires or vice versa, read on to get a better idea of the benefits and potential trade-offs for each type.

We’ve also included a tire diameter chart to reference for size comparison and matching between Passenger and Light Truck tires.

Passenger vs. Light Truck tires: What’s the difference?

Passenger tire sizes were originally designed for cars and station wagons, but as the automobile market has grown to include more passenger carrying — instead of cargo carrying — vans, pickup trucks and SUVs, Passenger tires have become more commonplace. Most light trucks being produced today are equipped with Passenger tires because they rarely go off road, carry heavy loads or tow a trailer. Passenger tires are lighter weight, with lower rolling resistance and a less aggressive tread design. Those features add up to improved ride comfort, less road noise and better fuel economy than a typical Light Truck tire — although they shouldn’t be considered adequate for off-road driving. Additionally, Passenger tires typically have better traction on wet and dry pavement.

Light Truck tires are built specifically for light trucks and can handle heavier loads under more adverse conditions. They usually have a deeper tread and thicker rubber in the sidewall and under the tread, offering more protection than their Passenger counterparts. Plus, they are constructed with heavier plies and often have an extra steel belt. Along with heavy load uses, some Light Truck tires are built for off-roading to handle gravel, dirt or other debris that can more easily damage Passenger tires.

Generally, if your truck or SUV’s original tires were Light Truck tires, you should replace them with Light Truck tires following the vehicle manufacturer’s recommendations. If you’re going to drive only on paved roads and not haul any heavy loads, you might be able to opt for a Passenger tire instead but should make sure to get a Passenger tire that has a 10% increase in load-carrying capacity in order to provide an acceptable margin of safety. You must also adjust your air pressure accordingly.

For example, if your truck or SUV weighs 4,500 pounds, each tire should be capable of carrying a minimum of 1,125 pounds. If a Passenger size is chosen to replace a Light Truck tire, the tires should be able to carry at least 1,238 pounds.

If your SUV, van or truck came with Passenger tires but you frequently haul heavy loads or pull heavy trailers, you should consider replacing your Passenger tires with Light Truck tires. The trade-off is that Light Truck tires offer a rough ride; their thicker, stiffer sidewalls aren’t very flexible and create a bumpier, noisier, less comfortable drive than Passenger tires. This stiffer tire, however, results in less sway and more predictable handling, which provides more confidence in how the vehicle drives when hauling or carrying heavy loads.

Ultimately, your tire’s construction must be able to handle the vehicle’s weight and intended use. It can create a dangerous situation if the tire you choose isn’t designed to handle the dynamics of your vehicle.

So, whether you’re taxiing your family around town or hauling heavy cargo, it’s important to equip your vehicle with the appropriate set of tires. It is always best to stay with the vehicle manufacturer’s recommended load range, even if you don’t plan to carry a lot of weight.

Should I use P-metric or LT-metric tires?

Many lightweight pickups, vans, and SUVs come from the factory with P-metric tires, which means they are designed for paved roadways and standard load sizes. These tires won’t do much if you plan on doing heavy-duty work with your light-duty truck. But before you switch your P-metric tires to LT-metric tires instead, check out how they stack up.

While LT-metric tires do well off-road, they aren’t suited for standard driving conditions. Their rolling resistance and heavy-duty construction can significantly increase fuel costs. And if you do a lot of highway driving, the resulting tread wear on your heavy-duty tires could cost you heavy-duty money. Plus, you could notice that your ride becomes noisier or rougher after replacing your P-metric tires with light truck tires.

On the other hand, if you haul heavy loads or drive on a lot of off-road terrains, putting P-metric tires on your light truck can be downright dangerous! Since these tires aren’t equipped to handle rough off-road conditions, you could damage the tire and dramatically shorten its lifespan. Additionally, the lack of support you get from the tire could allow those rough conditions to wreak havoc on your suspension!

Vehicle tires

Your average passenger car (P) or light truck (LT) tire is a radial design. These tires are designed for different purposes than trailer tires. Depending on the classification that could be for load bearing capacity, long distance driving, or a combination of both.

There are three major factors in mind during their construction:

  • Acceleration: When speeding up, a car tire must both deliver traction and endure the stresses caused by the acceleration.
  • Braking: When braking, the car tire must endure the stresses incurred and stop the vehicle.
  • Turning: When a vehicle tire makes a turn, the tread and overall construction of the tire deforms to provide better grip.

These three factors are of the utmost importance when designing a car tire. The materials and construction respond to the vehicle’s needs. They’re even designed to respond to weather conditions based on these needs.

These tires can have tread life capacities upwards of 80,000 miles with proper maintenance. It can be tempting to toss them on a trailer.

How to Remove a Truck Suspension Lift Kit

Removing a suspension lift kit will require the truck to be realigned after the removal of the lift. The wheels and tires–or just the tires, if the lift was not over 2 inches–must be replaced. This must be considered first, because when lifting a truck the normal tires and wheels can be used to go to a shop for an upgrade in size. When lowering the truck, the tires and wheels will not fit under the truck. The truck may have to sit on the jack stands until the tire situation is corrected.

Step 1

Raise the truck on all four corners, and support it on jack stands. Support the rear axle on either side, then jack up the axle sufficiently to relieve weight on the spring. Using the 1/2-inch air gun and socket, remove the nuts from the U bolts holding the axle to the spring.

Step 2

Remove the bottom plate and the lifting block between the spring and axle. Lower the axle onto the spring and replace the U bolts with new, shorter bolts. Install the lower axle support plate with the U bolts inserted through the holes in the plate, and install the nuts and tighten. Do the other side the same way.

Step 3

Remove both front wheels. Remove the front caliper and hang it up out of the way with a coat hanger so that it does not hang by its hose. Disconnect the ABS wire connector if so equipped. Place the floor jack under the lower control arm and lift it so it barely touches the control arm. Remove the sway bar link.

Step 4

Using the wire cutter, remove the cotter pin from the bottom ball joint. Loosen the ball joint nut but leave it on with five threads. Use the ball joint separator and separate the ball joint. Remove the nut on the top of the shock and remove the shock extender.

Step 5

Lift the lower control arm with the floor jack just enough to take the tension off the ball joint nut. Remove the nut. Slowly lower the control arm and remove the coil spring. Install the new coil spring by inserting it up into its frame housing and grab the bottom of the spring and force it into the receiver in the lower control arm, as far as possible. Raise the control arm slightly and force the spring in further until it is all the way in the receiver, or use the pry bar to help it into the pocket. Once in, raise the lower control arm slowly and insert the ball joint into the bottom receiver of the spindle. Install the nut on the ball joint and tighten the nut.

Install the cotter pin in the ball joint above the nut. Install the shock to its original bracket. Install the sway bar link and tighten the nut. Install the caliper and attach the ABS connector. Do the opposite side in the same manner. Lower the floor jack. Put the new tires and wheels on. If you do not need to buy new tires and wheels, put the old ones back on.

Can i use my trailer tires on my car?

If you didn’t get a spare with your car when you bought it, you may be tempted to get a rim and toss a trailer tire on it. If you’re not on it long, what’s the worst that could happen?

Well, a car accident that totals your car is bad.

Using a trailer tire on a vehicle focuses stress on areas where trailer tires are weakest. Vehicle tires keep traction and grip in mind during their construction, while trailer tires do not. This increases the risk significantly, especially at highway speeds or in poor weather.

We don’t recommend using a trailer tire on your vehicle.

Innovative Ideas For Bathroom Remodeling

Ultimate Guide to Bathroom Remodeling

Read this before you proceed with the repairing and renovation works in one of the rooms where you start your day – your bathroom. We’ve collected the info about contractors, materials, tools and other stuff to help you out with the checklist and calculations.

It makes no difference what you’re willing to get: a cheap bathroom remodeling from scratch or an elegant looking bathroom that will not simply cost you a fortune, but add value to the place you live in. The following guide is stuffed with tips and information on how to choose materials, hire professionals and make your dream come true. Additionally, you’ll get hints on how to make the repairing works on your own.


Analyze the pros and cons of your bathroom in its current state and deal with your wishes.

Look through the bathroom remodeling images or visit your local showrooms to get an idea of the space design in your renovated bathroom.

Analyze your financial position – study our bathroom remodeling tips and ideas and set your budget not to deal with unpredictable and unwanted loans.

Don’t try to rely only on yourself – trust the professionals. We have tips on how to pick out the best ones that will meet your needs and expectations.

Make it official – trustworthy bathroom remodeling companies will bear the responsibility for their work.

Get ready to survive – it won’t be easy. We’ll help you to beat the stress.

Bathroom Remodeling Materials and Tools

Storage spaces, cabinets, counters, countertops, vanities, and shelves;



Shower and bathtub materials;




Walls & Flooring;

Doors & Windows.

Study the following bathroom remodel questionnaire before you start…

What are the pros of your bathroom right now?

What are you willing to alter?

How do you imagine your dream bathroom?

What colors would you like?

How many people are going to use the bathroom on a regular basis?

How many of them will use the bathroom at the same time?

What space should be private and what can be shared between several people at once?

Will you have visitors in your new bathroom?

What is the age and health condition of people that will use the bathroom?

Do you need a bathroom remodeling for handicap accessibility?

Are you willing to separate the shower and bath space?

Will a shower for one person be enough?

Do you want to separate the water closet from the bathroom area or not?

Planning Guide: Bathrooms

Getting Started

When it comes to the bathroom, there’s a lot going on in a relatively small space. Focus on style and function.

Planning Your Remodel

Contemporary Design

Details in a Zen Retreat

Small Midcentury Bath

Factors to Consider

Traditional Style Bathroom Style

Rustic Master Bath

Purpose + Goals

Think about your reasons for remodeling, assess your bathroom needs and design a space that will fulfill your goals.

Which Bathroom?

Full Bathroom

Half-Bath or Powder Room

Master Bathroom

Three-Quarter Bathroom

Kid-Friendly Bathrooms

Assessing Costs

Get tips for creating and managing your remodeling budget. Break down renovation costs and discover budget-friendly options.

Creating a Budget

Where to Splurge and Save

Cheap vs. Steep

Expenses to Expect

Remodeling for Resale

Design + Space Planning

Consider what the bathroom offers you now (plumbing fixtures, surfaces, finishes, lighting) and decide what changes to make.

Evaluate the Existing Space

A Bathroom Designed for All

Layout Considerations

Universal Design Principles

Bath Planning Guide

Creating a Budget

According to the National Kitchen and Bath Association (NKBA), a bathroom redesign budget is typically dictated by size, which averages $125 a square foot. If you decide to sell your home, an updated bathroom is an attractive selling point, and the expected return on your investment is more than 60% on a major remodel.

Bathroom Refresh

A bathroom refresh can typically range between $200 and $5,000. Projects that might be included in a refresh are:


Vanity update

New countertop or sink

Bathtub refinish

New light fixtures

New window treatments

Hardware and fixture upgrades

Minor Remodel

A small remodel can typically range between $5,000 and $15,000. Projects that might be included in a redesign are:

New faucets, sink, shower and toilet

New bathtub/shower or whirlpool

Moving fixtures

New supply lines, drain pipes, electrical

New or additional cabinets/vanity

Building dividing walls

Replacing flooring

Major Remodel

A major remodel typically exceeds $15,000. Projects that might be included in a large renovation are:

New cabinet and fixture layout

Adding or removing doorways

Moving and/or expanding a bath

Redoing plumbing and electrical

Upgrading materials, surfaces, finishes

Adding skylights and/or windows

Bathroom Planning Guide: Inspiration and Ideas

This elegant white bathroom features matching vanities, mirrors and wall sconces. The stone vanity countertops play off the white marble tile flooring and mosaic tile backsplash, while brushed nickel fixtures provide a uniform look

A dark vanity, accessories and bronze finishes make this fresh design a study of contrasts. A glazed subway tile zigzag pattern accent wall is surrounded by moulding to frame it out. A black and white penny tile floor offers depth and breaks up some of the gray.

This beautiful two-toned clawfoot freestanding tub is just as much of a statement piece as the ceramic tile flooring. The black vanities feature a marble countertop and brass finishes that add just enough color to this black and white master bathroom.

Bold patterned wallpaper is perfect for a powder room. The yellow accents add the right amount of color pop to complement the white vanity and chrome fixtures. Avoid wallpaper in a master or guest bathroom, the moisture from showers or baths may cause it to peel.

This modern farmhouse bathroom features a rustic wood-look tile floor, an open wooden vanity with double sinks and bronze fixtures. The single panel shower door and mixture of dark and brass finishes add a modern industrial touch.

Bathroom Planning Guide: Layout and Design

Measuring Your Space


1 – Toilet – Allow at least 16 inches from the center of the toilet to a wall or fixture on either side. Toilets seats are usually 14 to 15 inches from the floor, but some toilet designs sit at chair height, 16 to 19 inches from the floor. Toilet compartments should be at least 36 inches wide by 66 inches deep. They can have a pocket door, a swing out door or no door. Also, make sure to measure the rough-in space, which is the distance from the wall to the center of the toilet drain in the floor. The standard rough-in is 12 inches, but you may encounter 10 inch and 14 inch rough-ins in older homes.

2 – Doorways – Need to be at least 32 inches wide.

3 – Mirror – Allow 8 inches or more between the top of the sink or countertop and the bottom of a medicine cabinet or mirror. Take the user’s height into consideration.

4 – Vanities – Standard height is 30 to 32 inches tall. In bathrooms with two vanities, either can be raised or lowered depending on the user’s height.

5 – Sinks – There should be at least 15 inches from the sink center to a sidewall. If there are two sinks in a vanity, there should be 36 inches center line to center line between them. Allow at least 8 inches between the edge of a sink and the end of the counter.

6 – Walkways – Need to be at least 36 inches wide.

7 – Towel Bars – Provide at least 36 inches of towel bar space per user. Mount them 36 to 48 inches above the floor.

8 – Shower – Minimum interior dimensions are 34 by 34 inches but 36 by 36 inches is better. Swinging shower doors must open into the bathroom, away from the shower.

9 – Tub/Shower Controls – In a tub/shower combo, mount the faucet 30 to 33 inches above the bathroom floor. Set controls at 38 to 48 inches high for ease of use while standing. Showerheads should be 69 to 72 inches from the floor. Controls should be accessible from both inside and outside of the shower

Design Ideas for a 3/4 Bathroom

A 3/4 bath offers a sink, a toilet and a shower (but not a tub). It’s ideal for overnight guests, who can get ready at night or in the morning without sharing a family or master bath. It also works well as a family’s second bath or for an older child or live-in relative desiring privacy. Surfaces and fixtures are basic.


1 – A single overhead fixture lights the vanity area.

2 – The sink is mounted in a vanity cabinet.

3 – The shower is a curtained enclosure.

4 – The toilet tucks into a corner

By leaving the layout unchanged—no expensive moves for fixtures and pipes—design tweaks create the feel of more space while minimizing costs. A pedestal sink opens up the vanity area, a glass door lightens the look of the shower, and storage features hug the walls, keeping the bath streamlined.


1 – Add a pair of sconces beside the vanity.

2 – Trade the vanity cabinet for a space-saving pedestal sink.

3 – Carve out more storage with a recessed medicine cabinet.

4 – Add another towel bar where the old vanity cabinet ended.

5 – Upgrade the flooring to a stone or stone-look surface using larger tiles.

6 – Swap out the shower curtain for a glass door.

7 – Stretch storage with a cabinet above the toilet.

8 – Add space-efficient hooks for robes and towels.

With a few choice upgrades, even a basic hardworking three-quarter bath can take on the look and feel of a luxurious bath retreat. Put a little extra style in the vanity area, make the shower more spa-like and boost storage throughout. Dimmable lighting and heated flooring create a little drama and a lot of comfort.


1 – Splurge on an attractive light fixture above the sink.

2 – Upgrade a basic vanity top to a stone or stone-look surface.

3 – Use organizers to improve vanity storage.

4 – Add storage above the sink with a recessed, mirrored medicine cabinet spanning the width of the vanity.

5 – Upgrade the sink and faucet.

6 – Choose beautiful stone or ceramic-tile flooring.

7 – Install radiant heat under the floor tiles to keep feet warm.

8 – Pamper yourself with a towel warmer.

9 – Step up from a shower curtain to a glass door.

10 – Hang a small cabinet above the toilet for storage.

11 – Install hooks for robes and towels.

12 – Use dimmer switches for different lighting effects.

Hands-Free Kitchen Faucet

Smart faucet brings voice commands to the kitchen sink

Design and installation

Sensate faucet with voice control ranges from $875 to $1,100 depending on finish. While that is expensive, it’s important to note that Kohler’s standard version of this faucet without any voice control also falls within that price range, so adding smarts doesn’t really cost you more.

sent me the oil-rubbed bronze finish to review, but the Sensate is also available in polished chrome, vibrant stainless and matte black. The single-hole design takes up little space on your countertop and the pull-down nozzle helps the faucet reach every corner of your sink. You can control the faucet with motion by waving your hand beneath the arch to turn it on or off. You can also use the physical handle or a voice assistant.

Installation is similar to most regular kitchen faucets, except for required electrical power. You’ll need a dedicated outlet or a switch that can be on all the time in order to power the motion sensing and smart components. If there isn’t wiring readily available near your sink already, you’ll need to factor that into your budget and installation plan. I suspect most people will want to call a plumber to help install it.

Voice control

Once your faucet is installed, you’ll need to download the Kohler Konnect app and create an account if you don’t have one already. Instructions differ for each operating system, but the app and corresponding smarts work with both iOS and Android devices. Follow the directions that come in the box to link that account with your voice assistant of choice, and you’re ready to go.

When you’re ready to use voice commands, you’ll need to physically pull the handle into the on position, then stop the water flow with your hand in order for the faucet to work with voice commands. That makes sense from a power standpoint — it’s like how you need to leave your light switch in the on position to control smart bulbs. As with smart lighting, it might be difficult to keep the faucet configured properly in a home where multiple people use the sink every day. That has the potential to take away from the convenience of voice commands.

Kitchen faucets

Kitchen faucets not only complete the look of your sink, but they’re one of the most commonly used fixtures in the home. In order to strike a balance between functionality and style, be sure to first determine your needs. A single-handle faucet with a pull-out sprayer is great for saving space and rinsing out the sink; a high-arc spout finished in bronze will increase water range in rustic style. When shopping for the right kitchen faucet

What type of mount should I choose?

Kitchen sinks and countertops are generally equipped with one to five holes to accommodate faucets in various configurations, including additional side accessories like sprayers or soap dispensers. Different types of units require different amounts of holes: single-handle units require one while double-handle units require three (one for the spout, and two for the handles).

Typically, kitchen faucets can be mounted in one of three ways:

Deckplate: These faucets contain the spout and handles in one mounting plate, and can cover up to three holes in your sink.

Non-deckplate: All faucet components mount individually on the sink or countertop with the non-deckplate option, making this option more customizable.

Wall-mount: If you have an apron or undermount sink with no pre-drilled faucet holes, wall-mounted faucets are a great solution.

Note: If you’re replacing a faucet in an existing sink, you’ll need to choose one that’s compatible with the number and spacing of the existing holes (remember, you can conceal unused holes with sink hole covers if need be). However, if you’re working with a brand new sink, you can customize it to fit your needs

What type of handle is best?

This is largely dependent on the number of holes you’re working with, which mounting option you’ve chosen and what you prefer aesthetically. A single-handle faucet requires one or two holes and is often offered with a mounting plate to cover additional holes, while a double-handle faucet has separate handles for hot and cold water and require three holes


Touch faucets’ most innovative feature is something you can’t even see – but after just one touch you’ll be smitten. They offer you the ability to control the flow of water in your kitchen with nothing more than a touch from your wrist, forearm or the back of your hand, ideal for all busy cooks and their helpers.

Your faucet remains clean and germ free. No matter how many times you use it. Touch faucets react to the slightest touch, letting you turn them on and off without leaving a mark.  There is no need to use the lever – just tap the faucet with your wrist or forearm for perfect control every time.

You can turn on Touchless FootControl faucets with a simple tap of your toe on the base unit leaving your hands free and your faucet spotless. This new level of kitchen convenience makes it easier than ever to fill heavy pots and clean the dishes or your hands while also leaving the tap sparkling and germ-free. 


Washing hands using a conventional faucet can leave your faucet dirty potentially leaving behind germs, bacteria, and viruses. Automatic faucets controlled by a sensor are therefore a good alternative for making hand washing more hygienic, especially in big, busy households. Since the faucet is controlled using an infrared sensor, you don’t have to touch it at all reducing chances of spreading germs.

automatic taps are not only hygienic, but also extremely convenient. You can easily preselect the water temperature and as the faucet is activated, the water comes out at the desired temperature every time. Also, with the use of highly precise sensors, hand movements are reliably detected. The infrared sensor also detects when you move your hands away from the faucet automatically stopping the flow of water.

Kitchen Faucets

Find The Right Faucet For Your Kitchen

Finding the right faucet makes cooking and cleaning much easier, and enhances the look of any décor. We offer a wide range of options to suit your every need; from industrially inspired bridge faucets to streamlined single handle pull outs and pull downs, to our most popular commercial style faucets enhanced with pull down functionality.

Choosing The Right Fit

To accommodate any size of kitchen, we offer a variety of height-optimized faucets designed to fit underneath any cabinet for easy installation anywhere, with high arc spouts that swivel out of the way when you need more room in the sink for large items or stacks of dishes. No more struggling to fill or clean oversized pots or tall containers!

A Faucet For Every Sink

We also have options for any room in the house where you might need a sink, including sleek single handle bar faucets that you can pair with a prep bowl to free up space in the main basin, and impressively tall models that you can team with a laundry or utility sink for maximum impact.

Magnetic Docking: A magnetic lock connects the pull down sprayhead securely to the spout and locks it in place, with no drooping over time.

Dual Function: An easy to reach button located on the sprayhead allows you to switch between spray and stream to handle any task.

Reach™ Technology: Our pull down models hit all the right spots, allowing you to reach every hard to get place inside and outside of the sink with a flexible hose and swiveling sprayhead connector.

QuickDock Installation: Master the art of installation in 5 minutes flat with faucets featuring a drop-in QuickDock base that installs from above the counter – no need to go underneath the sink!

Best Kitchen Faucets For Long-Lasting Use

The average American only spent 37 minutes daily in their kitchen preparing food and cleaning up. Since then, in a nationwide trend to eat out less and create healthy habits, one of the fastest growing industries is kitchen appliances.

When it comes to kitchen faucets, gone are the days of a simple on/off – today’s kitchen faucets have many features that can completely customize your kitchen experience. Read our thorough review here for choosing the best faucets on the market today.

Both pull down and pull out kitchen faucet styles have attached sprayers that can be manipulated per their namesakes. Pull down faucets are taller and can be pulled straight down, a move that is both ergonomically correct and great for filling large pots or pitchers.

Pull out faucets usually have a lower profile and generally, offer longer hoses – a feature that some people prefer to fill pots that are sitting on the counter.

Touchless Vs. Touch

Both touchless and touch faucets were developed to eliminate the transfer of germs and bacteria from your hands to the faucet handles. A motion sensor usually operates touchless kitchen faucets. They are becoming increasingly popular in public restrooms. Place your hands in front of the sensor, and the water will begin.

Questions To Ask A Roof Inspection Professional

How do you repair a damaged roof?

Is your roof damaged? You may not think so, but how can you be sure?

Have you checked your roof for signs of damage? Do you even know how to check or what signs you’re looking for? Roof damage is serious and we don’t want anyone to get hurt because of it. Besides, if you don’t know how to check your roof, you’ve probably not previously known what you need to look for.

follow this guide to check for signs of roof damage.

1. Sunlight Coming Through

Holes in your roof that are big enough to let the sunshine in are a dead giveaway that the roof is damaged. This sign is typically the most obvious. But it’s sometimes overlooked, especially in attics and other rooms that don’t get used often.

Check for holes that let in sunlight room by room. Turn off all the lights, close the blinds and the door. Basically, make the room as dark inside as you can.

Then, look to the sky. If you can see the sky or even small sparkles of light, you’ve got holes in your roof.

2. Leaks When It Rains

Another obvious sign is that your roof leaks when it rains. Only, it’s not always that obvious.

If you are aware of leaks in your roof, don’t hesitate to get it repaired. Even a small leak lets moisture in between the cracks, which spreads as far as it can into your roofing material. Then, this moisture expands and contracts with temperature changes, widening the opening in your roof.

This deterioration spreads quickly, weakening the integrity of your roof. The longer you wait, the more dangerous it becomes and the more expensive it is to fix.

If you aren’t aware of any leaks, check for dripping next time it rains. Don’t overlook the attic, as many homeowners do.

3. Moisture Where It Shouldn’t Be

As we said before, leaks aren’t always obvious. Sometimes they’re just a teeny, tiny dribble that gets trapped in your insulation or absorbs into the boxes stored in your attic. This doesn’t make them any less of a problem.

Such leaks will obviously be devastating to the stored items you have soaking in them. And wherever this moisture ends up, it becomes ideal breeding grounds for mold and mildew. This can rot the very wood your house is made of.

So, during and after a rainstorm, check for puddles or other wet spots where moisture has collected. And regularly check your house for mold or mildew.

Also, paint that is blistering/peeling is another sign of excess moisture. If you see any of these signs, call a professional roofer to come to check them out.

4. Stains and Discoloring

When leaks have been going on for a really long time, you can see it on the ceiling and walls. As moisture drips further and further down into your house, it brings dirt and dust with it. When this dirty water soaks all the way through to the surface or your ceiling and walls, it discolors the paint.

These discolorations are grey, brown, or yellowish in color. On the ceiling, it appears as a circular ring. On the walls, it may look like streaks dripping down.

As we said, these stains indicate that the leaks have reached all the way into your home. They’re signs of very advanced water damage and need to be fixed right away.

5. Sagging

Another sign of long-time water damage is a sagging ceiling. This means that water has pooled in that same spot above your head so many times that the ceiling is warping under the weight of it.

It’s exceedingly important that you have a professional roofer look at it right away. Again, when you’re checking for sagging, don’t forget the attic.

6. Energy Bills Increasing

Water and light aren’t the only things that leak through the holes in your roof. Air and heat can leak through as well. When there’s a temperature leak, your heating and cooling system has to run more frequently to make up for the breach.

If you notice your energy bill keeps costing you more each month, air leaking through your roof may be to blame. Of course, there are many other factors that can cause this. But it’s best to check your roof just in case.

Check for sunlight streaming through, as instructed above. And check the exterior, as we describe in the next point.

How to Repair a Damaged Roof

  • Repair Sheathing

After cleaning the debris and reframing the roof, lay down a base (sheathing). Eight-foot, 1/2-inch-thick plywood is standard sheathing material. Measure the opening of the section of roof to be shingled, cut the plywood to size and nail to roof rafters. Stagger the sheathing in a brick pattern for extra strength. Do not place an entire 8-foot section of plywood onto roof. Such a long piece is structurally unstable in the middle. Continue to install in brick pattern, staggering the plywood seams until the open area is covered.

  • Lay Felt Paper

Start by stapling the 6-inch starter strip at the bottom section of roof leaving a 1-inch overhang on the eave to ensure drainage into the gutters. Going from bottom up, lay and nail the remaining felt layers with a 2-inch overlap. Be sure to nail the tar strip on each felt layer to ensure maximum hold.

  • Install Shingles

Lay the first row of shingles starting at a bottom corner of the roof. Place a base row of shingles following the chalk lines on the felt and move upward in a pyramid shape. Use six nails per shingle to ensure maximum hold, and be sure to always nail on the tar strip. Continue working your way across and up the roof, following your initial pyramid base. If repairing a section of damaged roof, be sure you layer the existing shingles on top of the new. This will ensure a uniform and seamless look.

Swap Shingles

If part of a shingle is missing, you’ll have to replace the whole thing. First see if you have any leftover shingles from the last time the roof was worked on (with any luck, the builder or the roofer who handled the job left some behind). If not, you’ll have to buy a bundle at a home center or lumberyard ($15 to $20 per square—100 sq. ft.—of standard three-tab shingles). If you can’t find a perfect match, choose the closest one.

Replacing a damaged shingle requires a hammer, a flat pry bar, a utility knife and a handful of 11/4-in. roofing nails. Each shingle is initially secured with four nails; when the next shingle course above is installed, however, its nails also pass through the top edge of the shingles in the course below.

Begin removing the first row of nails by sliding the pry bar under the shingle immediately above the damaged one and gently lifting it to free it from the sealer strip. You’ll see the first row of nails beneath.

Slip the pry bar under the damaged shingle and pry upward. Once the nail pops up about 1/4 in., remove the pry bar, press the shingle down and pull out the nail. Repeat this procedure for the remaining three nails. Then push the pry bar under the shingle directly above the damaged one and remove the second row of nails the same way. After yanking all eight nails, pull out the damaged shingle.

If the existing shingles are brittle, you may not be able to pry out the second row of nails without cracking a shingle. In that case, tear out the damaged shingle and cut V-notches in the replacement to fit around the four nails. Slide the new shingle up into place and secure it with four nails.

Sealing Leaky Joints

Inspect areas where surfaces join, such as at a chimney or valley.

  • Look for gaps in caulk, sealant, or aluminum flashing where any objects intersect with or emerge from the roof. These are some of the most common sources of roof leaks, and smaller gaps are easy to repair.
  • Small gaps can be treated with caulk or roof sealant, but larger cracks or tears require patching or new flashing.

Apply roof sealant or cement to gaps less than 1⁄4 in (0.64 cm) wide.

  • Scrape away old sealant, wipe away debris, and dry the area thoroughly before applying a new compound. Use a thin, flexible putty knife to apply roof cement to small cracks in the sealant around chimneys, pipes, or other joined surfaces. For small gaps at the metal or rubber collar of an exposed pipe or vent, apply a bead of waterproof silicone-based caulk with a caulking gun.
  • Gaps larger than 1⁄4 in (0.64 cm) will require a more substantial fix instead of a simple sealant.[24]

Repair rusted or loose flashing at a joint.

  • Flashing is typically made of steel or aluminum, and it seals joints around chimneys, valleys, siding, and walls that intersect the roof. If you find loose flashing, apply a bead of roof cement beneath it, then press it back into place.
  • If a small area of flashing is rusted, slide a new piece of galvanized steel flashing beneath the failing area, then seal it with roofing cement.
  • If you’re any shingles adjacent to flashing are loose, avoid nailing the shingles on the side that makes contact with the flashing. Instead, bond the shingles to the flashing using roof cement to avoid puncturing the flashing.

Replace large areas of failing flashing, if necessary.

  • Pry off stretches of unsound flashing and old roof cement with a chisel or pry bar. Measure your chimney, vent, or other joined area, and use a pair of straight cutting tin snips to cut a section of pre-bent base flashing to fit the joint. Your flashing should overlap the joint by about 4 in (10 cm) on each side.
  • Apply strips of ice-and-water barrier to the joint before installing the flashing. For a chimney or other object protruding from the roof, apply strips 4 in (10 cm) up the object’s height.
  • Wrap the flashing around the joint and seal it with roofing cement or caulk. If there are nail holes on the flashing’s edge, drive galvanized roofing nails into them.
  • If you have a shingled roof, you might have needed to remove shingles in order to access the old flashing. Replace them, if necessary, and secure them to the flashing with roofing cement.
  • Properly replacing all of the flashing around a chimney is complex and may require custom-made materials. If necessary, consult a professional

Repair Cracked Shingles

If a shingle is simply cracked or torn, you don’t have to replace it—just repair it. Start by applying a thick bead of roofing sealant under the crack. Press the shingle down and apply a second bead of sealant on top of the crack. Then spread the sealant with a putty knife.

The best part of this fix is that no one has to know you made it. It’s easy to camouflage: Check the gutter for an accumulation of colored granules that have washed down the roof from the shingles. Then gather some into a small cup and sprinkle them over the sealant to mask the repair.